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Arcade gaming sales figures.

Arcade gaming industryEdit

Further information: Arcade game
See also: Video game industry, Video games in Japan, and Video games in the United States

By 1988, the three major arcade game manufacturers were Sega, Namco and Taito.[1]

In 2004, the United States spent $3.5 billion dollars in coin-operated arcade machines.[26]

List of best-selling arcade gamesEdit

The following lists the arcade games that sold the most arcade hardware units, including arcade cabinets and conversion kits.

List of highest-grossing arcade gamesEdit

Title Gross
(million US$)
(no inflation)
Release
year
Gross
as of
(year)
Ref Gross
(million US$)
(with inflation)
Japan Pac-Man 5093 1980 1990 [46] 15127
Japan Space Invaders 3702 1978 1982 [46] 13890
Japan Street Fighter II 4245 1991 1994 [47] 7627
Japan Donkey Kong 1744 1981 1982 [48] 4695
Japan World Club Champion Football 2507 2002 2013 [n 6] 3411
United States Ms. Pac-Man 1200 1981 1987 [55][n 7] 2585
United States Asteroids 800 1979 1982 [n 8] 2029
Japan Pole Position (US gross) 579.6 1982 1984 [n 9] 1470
United States Defender 1000 1980 2002 [n 10] 1421
United States NBA Jam 1000 1993 2010 [n 11] 1382
Japan OutRun (hardware sales) 393.06 1986 1993 [65] 878
Japan Mushiking: The King of Beetles 631.0232 2003 2006 [n 12] 839
Japan Dance Dance Revolution 516 1998 2005 [68] 775
United States Mortal Kombat 570 1992 2002 [25] 776
Japan Indy 500 / Speedway 96 1969 1980 [44] 641
Japan Sangokushi Taisen 399.3404 2005 2006 [69] 500
Japan Beatmania 310 1997 2000 [n 13] 473
Japan Phoenix (US gross) 157 1980 1982 [n 14] 466
Japan Oshare Majo: Love and Berry 317 2004 2006 [n 15] 411
Japan Dragon Quest: Monster Battle Road 327.2 2007 2008 [71] 386
South Korea Pump It Up 222 1999 2005 [27][72] 326
United States Centipede 115.65 1981 1991 [13] 208
United States Dragon's Lair 68.8 1983 1983 [34][73] 169
Japan StarHorse3 Season I:
A New Legend Begins
152.4 2011 2013 [n 16] 166
United States Mortal Kombat II 100 1993 1994 [75] 165
Japan Border Break 141 2009 2013 [n 17] 161
Japan Sengoku Taisen 121.44 2010 2013 [n 18] 136
Japan Dig Dug 46.3 1982 1983 [13] 117
United States Tempest 62.408 1981 1991 [13] 112
United States Tron 45 1982 1983 [77] 111

List of best-selling arcade game franchisesEdit

See also: List of best-selling video game franchises

These are the combined hardware sales of at least two or more arcade games that are part of the same franchise. This list only includes franchises that have sold at least 10,000 hardware units or grossed at least $100 million revenue.

Franchise Original release year Total hardware units sold Gross revenue
(US$ without inflation)
Gross revenue
(US$ with 2014 inflation)[78]
Japan Pac-Man 1980 533,412 (up to 1988)[n 19] $5.446 billion (up to 1999)[n 20] $16.2 billion
Japan Space Invaders 1978 500,000 (up to 1990)[2] $3.852 billion (up to 1982)[46] $14.5 billion
Japan Street Fighter 1987 500,000 (up to 2002)[80][81] $4.245 billion (up to 1994)
(Street Fighter II)[47]
$9.14 billion
(Street Fighter II)
Japan Pac-Man clones 1980 300,000 (up to 2002)[82]
Japan SEGA Model 1992 200,000 (up to 2000)
(Model 2 & 3)[83]
$3.5 billion (up to 2000)
(Model 2 & 3 hardware sales)[84]
$6.1 billion
(Model 2 & 3 hardware sales)
Japan Mario 1981 190,800 (up to 1983)[n 21] $1.8904 billion (up to 1982)[48] $5.09 billion
Japan Donkey Kong 1981 187,000 (up to 1983)[48] $1.8904 billion (up to 1982)[48] $5.09 billion
Japan World Club Champion Football 2002 2,479 (2006-2009)[n 23] $2.507 billion (up to 2013)[n 6] $3.41 billion
United States Asteroids 1979 136,437 (up to 1999)[n 24] $850.79 million (up to 1999)[n 25] $1.18 billion
Japan SEGA Model 2 1993 130,000 (up to 1996)[86] $1.95 billion (up to 1996)
(hardware sales)[86]
$3.3 billion
United States Golden Tee Golf 1989 100,000 (up to 2011)[87]
United States Defender 1981 75,000 (up to 2002)[n 26] $1 billion (up to 2002)[61] $1.36 billion
United States Centipede 1981 65,978 (up to 1991)[n 27] $136.3 million (up to 1991)[n 28] $245 million
United States Mortal Kombat 1992 51,000 (up to 2002)[25] $1 billion (up to 1995)[90] $1.61 billion
Japan Bemani 1997 50,000+ (up to 2003)[n 29] $709.32 million+ (as of 2003)[n 30] $1.08 billion
Japan Galaxian 1979 40,986 (in the US up to 1988)[n 31]
Japan Starhorse 2000 38,734 (up to 2009)[n 32] $212 million (up to 2012)[n 33] $301 million
Japan Dragon Quest: Monster Battle Road 2007 $327.2 million (up to 2008)[71] $386 million
United States Big Buck 2000 33,500 (up to 2010)[n 34]
Japan e-Amusement 2002 32,000 (up to 2004)[97] $1.232 billion (up to 2012)[n 35] $1.68 billion
Japan Mr. Do! 1982 30,000 (in the US up to 1982)[101]
Japan OutRun 1986 30,000 (up to 1993)[102] $393.06 million (up to 1993)[65]
(hardware sales)
$878 million
(hardware sales)
Japan SEGA Network Mahjong 2000 25,986 (up to 2006)[n 37] $81.87 million (up to 2012)[n 38] $116 million
Japan Pole Position 1982 24,550 (in the US up to 1983)[n 39] $597 million (up to 1988)
(US hardware sales)[n 40]
$1.51 billion
Japan Dig Dug 1982 22,228[13] (in the US up to 1983)[32] $46.3 million (up to 1983)[13]
(US hardware sales)
$117 million
(US hardware sales)
Template:Country data Korea Pump It Up 1999 20,000 (up to 2005)[27] $222 million (up to 2005)[27][104] $326 million
Japan Mushiking 2003 13,500 (up to 2005)[39] $631.0232 million (up to 2006)[n 12] $839 million
Japan Love and Berry 2004 10,300 (up to 2006)[17] $317 million (up to 2005)[n 15] $411 million
Japan Sangokushi Taisen 2005 9,929 (up to 2008)[n 42] $582.2 million (up to 2011)[n 44] $730 million
United States Pong 1972 8500-19,000[42][43] $11 million (up to 1973)[105] $60.6 million
United States Breakout 1976 15,805 (up to 1999)[37] $17.745 million (up to 1999)[37] $26.1 million
United States Star Wars 1983 14,039 (up to 1991)[13] $9.275 million (up to 1999)[13] $13.6 million
United States Sprint 1976 14,027 (up to 1999)[37] $28.729 million (up to 1999)[37] $42.2 million
United States Sea Wolf 1976 14,000 (up to 2000)[106]
Japan Mahjong Fight Club 2002 13,000 (up to 2004)[107]
United States Gauntlet 1985 11,368 (up to 1991)[13] $20.41 million (up to 1991)[13] $36.7 million
Japan Border Break 2009 2,998 (up to 2009)[21] $141 million (up to 2013)[n 17] $161 million

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. Street Fighter II:
    • Street Fighter II': Champion Edition (140,000 in Japan)[4]
    • Street Fighter II: The World Warrior (60,000)[5]
    • Super Street Fighter II (100,000)[6]
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 StarHorse2:
    • From April 2005 to March 2007: 18,079 units
      • StarHorse2: New Generation – 7,819 units from April 2005 to June 2006 (6,020 units in fiscal year ended March 2006,[15] and 1,799 units during April–June 2006)[16]
      • StarHorse2: Second Fusion - 10,260 units from April 2006 to March 2007 (8,105 conversion kits during April–December 2006,[17] and 2,155 body and satellite units in fiscal year ending March 2007)[18]
    • From April 2007 to March 2008: 10,275 units (756 body and satellite units of StarHorse2: Second Fusion during April–September 2007,[19] and 9,519 conversion kits in fiscal year ended March 2008)[20]
    • From April 2009 to December 2009: 10,657 units of StarHorse2: Fifth Expansion[21]
  3. 3.0 3.1 Dance Dance Revolution sales:
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Sega Network Mahjong MJ4:
    • Fiscal year ended March 2008: 10,427[20]
    • Fiscal year ended March 2009: 2,465[41]
  5. World Club Champion Football: Intercontinental Clubs
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2010: ¥4.2 billion[51]
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2011: ¥3.8 billion[52]
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2012: ¥3.6 billion[53][54]
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2013: ¥3.2 billion
    • April-December 2013: ¥2.1 billion
    • Currency conversion: [2] $224 million
      • ¥4.2 billion = $55.4312 million
      • ¥3.8 billion = $50.2 million
      • ¥3.6 billion = $48 million
      • ¥3.2 billion = $42.2333 million
      • ¥2.1 billion = $28 million
  6. 6.0 6.1 World Club Champion Football revenue:
    • Card revenues up until January 2009 - $1.901 billion
      • 480 million player cards sold as of January 2009, costing around ¥300 each.[49][50] This brings the total card revenue up to ¥144 billion, equivalent to $1.901 billion.
    • Unit sales revenues from April 2005 to December 2009 - $307.4 million
      • World Club Champion Football: European Clubs 2004–2005 at £90,000 ($189,000) [3] each - $149.4 million
        • 514 units from April 2005 to March 2006: $97.2 million
        • 276 units during April–September 2006: $52.2 million
      • World Club Champion Football: Intercontinental Clubs 2006-2007 - 831 units from June 2008 to March 2009 at £90,000 ($189,000) [4] each = $158 million
    • World Club Champion Football: Intercontinental Clubs revenues from April 2009 to December 2013 - $224 million[n 5]
  7. 7.0 7.1 125,000 units[8] at $2800 each[56]
  8. [57][58]
  9. 9.0 9.1 Pole Position revenue:
    • US hardware sales as of 1983: $88.2 million (21,000 units[24] at $4200[59] each)
    • US coin revenue in 1984: $491.4 million (21,000 units,[24] with $450 weekly earnings per cabinet)[60]
  10. [61][62]
  11. NBA Jam: Over $300 million in 1993,[63] $1 billion by 2010[64]
  12. 12.0 12.1 Mushiking: King of the Beetles, revenue
    • 420 million cards by December 2006.[66]
    • 478 million cards [5] at 100 yen each[67] = ¥47.8 billion
    • Currency conversion: $631.023102 million [6]
  13. 13.0 13.1 Beatmania revenue:
    • ¥1 billion in March 1998[28]
      • Yen-Dollar currency conversion: $12.4 million[70]
    • Based on $12.4 million revenue from 1,000 units sold in fiscal year ending March 1998,[28] assuming price of $12,400
      • 25,000 arcade machines at $12,400 each = $310 million
  14. Phoenix, March 1981 to February 1982: 15,000 arcade cabinets, with $201 weekly earnings per cabinet[38]
  15. 15.0 15.1 Love and Berry:
    • 240 million[66] 100 yen coins[67] = ¥24 billion
    • Currency conversion: $317 million [7]
  16. StarHorse3 Season I: A New Legend Begins
    • Three quarters ended December 2011: ¥3.3 billion [8]
    • Fiscal year ended March 2012: ¥10.1 billion[53] (additional ¥6.8 billion)
    • Fiscal year ended March 2013: ¥1.7 billion [9] [74]
    • Currency conversion:
      • ¥3.3 billion in 2011 = $43 million in 2011 [10]
      • ¥6.8 billion in 2012 = $87.2 million in 2012 [11]
      • ¥1.7 billion in 2013 = $22.2 million in 2013 [12]
  17. 17.0 17.1 Border Break:
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2010: ¥3.3 billion[51]
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2011: ¥2.5 billion[52]
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2012: ¥2.3 billion[53][76]
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2013: ¥2 billion
    • April-December 2013: ¥1.2 billion
    • Currency conversion:[70]
      • ¥3.3 billion = $40.7317 million
      • ¥2.5 billion = $30.8542 million
      • ¥2.3 billion = $28.6371 million
      • ¥2 billion = $24.902 million
      • ¥1.2 billion = $14.9411 million
  18. Sengoku Taisen:
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2011: ¥6.4 billion[52]
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2012: ¥1.2 billion[53]
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2013: ¥2.2 billion
    Currency conversion:[70]
    • ¥6.4 billion = $79.1 million
    • ¥1.2 billion = $14.94 million
    • ¥2.2 billion = $27.4 million
  19. Pac-Man series:
  20. Pac-Man series:
  21. Mario series:
  22. World Club Champion Football: Intercontinental Clubs
    • World Club Champion Football: Intercontinental Clubs 2006-2007 - 831 units from June 2008 to March 2009[41]
    • World Club Champion Football: Intercontinental Clubs 2008-2009 - 858 units from April 2009 to December 2009[21]
  23. World Club Champion Football, unit sales:
    • World Club Champion Football: European Clubs 2004-2005 - 514 units in fiscal year ending March 2006[15]
    • World Club Champion Football: European Clubs 2004-2005 Ver. 2 - 276 units during April?September 2006 (240 satellite units during April?June 2006,[85] and 36 body units during April?September 2006)[16]
    • World Club Champion Football: Intercontinental Clubs 2008-2009 - 1,689 units from June 2008 to December 2009[n 22]
  24. Asteroids series:
  25. Asteroids series:
  26. Defender series:
  27. Centipede series:[13][24]
  28. Centipede series:[13]
  29. Bemani series, sales:
  30. Bemani series, gross revenues:
  31. Galaxian series:
  32. StarHorse series:
  33. Starhorse series, 2009-2011:
  34. Big Buck series:
    • Big Buck Hunter series sales up until April 2007: 22,500 units, including 7,500 Big Buck Hunter Pro units.[94]
    • Series sales after April 2007 until September 2009: additional 2,500 Big Buck Hunter Pro units and 5,500 Big Buck Safari units.[95]
    • Big Buck Hunter Pro: Open Season sales from September 2009 to January 2010: 3,000 units[96]
  35. e-Amusement revenue:
    • April 2009 to March 2010: ¥39 billion[98]
    • April 2010 to March 2011: ¥28.3 billion[98]
    • April 2011 to March 2012: ¥25.5 billion[99]
    • April 2012 to June 2012: ¥3.8 billion[100]
    • Currency conversion:[70]
      • ¥39 billion = $497.5124 million in 2010
      • ¥28.3 billion = $361.0154 million in 2011
      • ¥25.5 billion = $325.2966 million in 2012
      • ¥3.8 billion = $48.4756 million in 2012
  36. SEGA Network Mahjong MJ2:
    • April 2004 to March 2005: 4,984[93]
    • April 2005 to June 2005: 502[103]
  37. SEGA Network Mahjong MJ series:
    • SEGA Network Mahjong MJ2 from April 2004 to June 2005: 5,486 units[n 36]
    • SEGA Network Mahjong MJ3 from April 2005 to March 2006: 7,608 units[15]
    • SEGA Network Mahjong MJ4 from April 2007 to March 2009: 12,892[n 4]
  38. SEGA Network Mahjong MJ series, 2009-2012:
    • SEGA Network Mahjong MJ4: $47 million in fiscal year 2010[n 4]
  39. Pole Position series US sales:
  40. Pole Position series US sales:[13][24]
  41. Sangokushi Taisen unit sales:
    • As of March 2005: 421[93]
    • April 2005 to March 2006: 1,521[15]
  42. Sangokushi Taisen series:
    • Sales from January 2005 to September 2006: 5,153 units
      • Sangokushi Taisen from January 2005 to March 2006: 1,942 units[n 41]
      • Sangokushi Taisen 2 during April-September 2006: 3,211 units[16]
    • Sales from April 2007 to March 2008: 4,776
      • 166 body units of Sangokushi Taisen 2 during April-September 2007[19]
      • 4,610 satellite units of Sangokushi Taisen from April 2007 to March 2008[20]
  43. Sangokushi Taisen 2:
    • 3,211 units during April?September 2006.[16]
    • 830 units during April?September 2007.[19]
  44. Sangokushi Taisen series revenue:
    • Sangokushi Taisen, 2005-2006: $399.3404 million[69]
    • Sangokushi Taisen 2, 2006-2007: $7 million[n 43]


ReferencesEdit

  1. Business Japan, Volume 33, Issues 7-12 (1988), page 121 – "On the other hand, Taito (Presii dent: Keisuke Hasegawa; main office, Tokyo); Sega Enterprises (President: Hayao Nakayama; main office, Tokyo) and Namco (President: Masaya Nakamura: main office, Tokyo), the three major manufacturers of commercial video game equipment for game centers, are enjoying favorable sales and earnings."
  2. 2.0 2.1 Space Invaders arcade machine sales
    • Worldwide sales: 500,000 cabinets
    • Up until 1982: 350,000 cabinets in Japan and 65,000 cabinets in the United States
    • Jiji Gaho Sha, inc. (2003), Asia Pacific perspectives, Japan, 1, University of Virginia, p. 57, http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=CTRWAAAAYAAJ, retrieved 9 April 2011, "At that time, a game for use in entertainment arcades was considered a hit if it sold 1000 units; sales of Space Invaders topped 300,000 units in Japan and 60,000 units overseas."
    • Dale Peterson (1983), Genesis II, creation and recreation with computers, Reston Publishing, p. 175, ISBN 0-8359-2434-3, http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=DL1YAAAAMAAJ, retrieved 1 May 2011, "By 1980, some 300,000 Space Invader video arcade games were in use in Japan, and an additional 60,000 in the United States."
    • Kohler, Chris (2004). Power-Up: How Japanese Video Games Gave the World an Extra Life. Indianapolis, Ind.: BradyGames. p. "represented+a+significant+portion+of+the+cost" 19. ISBN 0-7440-0424-1. "Within one year of its US release, an additional 60,000 machines had been sold. One arcade owner said of Space Invaders that it was the first arcade game whose intake "represented a significant portion of the cost of [buying] the game in any one week." That is, it was the first video game that paid for itself within about a month."
    • Kubey, Craig (April 1982). The winners' book of video games. pp. 63-4. http://www.digitpress.com/library/books/book_winners_book_of_video_games.pdf. "Space Invaders. It is the Muhammad Ali of the video game world. It is the Greatest. The biggest seller in the history of the world. The best game ever for the year it was introduced. The game that revitalized the industry and changed it forever. The game that made the industry the monster it is today. The game that not only was an unprecedented success as a coin-op machine, but also the game that launched a home video version that became the biggest seller of all time. Space Invaders drove an entire nation mad. You may think the last sentence refers to the United States: Space Invaders did outsell the previous US leader—Pong of Sea Wolf, take your pick— by six to one (60,000 to 10,000). But if the United States was an eight on the scale of video craziness, Japan was an eleven. Space Invaders created a shortage of the hundred-yen coin. [...] The biggest seller in the history of the United States—Pac-Man—has sold about 100,000 units of the legal Midway version. That's in a country with a 1980 population of 226 million. Japan's 1980 population was about 117 million, or about half that of the United States. In Japan alone, approximately 350,000 Space Invaders machines were sold, about one for every 330 citizens!"
    • Space Invaders, Arcade History: "About 65000 units were produced in the U.S. and a reported 350000 world wide."
  3. 3.0 3.1 Kao, John J. (1989). Entrepreneurship, creativity & organization: text, cases & readings. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. p. 45. ISBN 0-13-283011-6. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=P-MJAQAAMAAJ. Retrieved 12 February 2012. "Estimates counted 7 billion coins that by 1982 had been inserted into some 400,000 Pac Man machines worldwide, equal to one game of Pac Man for every person on earth. US domestic revenues from games and licensing of the Pac Man image for T-shirts, pop songs, to wastepaper baskets, etc. exceeded $1 billion."
  4. Ste Curran (2004), Game plan: great designs that changed the face of computer gaming, Rotovision, p. 38, ISBN 2-88046-696-2, http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=TXcWlWkIZ0AC&pg=PA38, retrieved 2011-04-11, "When Street Fighter II′ (pronounced street fighter two dash) was released just a short time later, it sold around 140,000 units, at ¥160.000 (c. US $1300 / £820) each. The figures were beyond massive — they were simply unheard of. Capcom's Titanic wasn't sinking. Anything but. The game was a runaway success in its territory of choice, bringing Western gamers as much joy as it had in the East."
  5. Steven L. Kent (2001), The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story behind the Craze that Touched Our Lives and Changed the World, Prima, p. 446, http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=C2MH05ogU9oC, retrieved 2011-04-09, "Capcom will not release the final numbers, but some outsiders have estimated that more than 60,000 Street Fighter II arcade machines were sold worldwide."
  6. [https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=HqC0AAAAIAAJ&q=super+street+fighter+ii Japan Company Handbook: Second section, Issues 1-2, Toyo Keizai Shinposha, 1994, page 758] – "Sales of "Street Fighter II Turbo' aimed at 4.2 mil units, and commercial-use "Super Street Fighter II" at 100,000 units in current term."
  7. 7.0 7.1 Donkey Kong cabinet sales:
    • Japan: 65,000 of Donkey Kong
    • United States: 87,000 of Donkey Kong and Crazy Kong
      • United States: 67,000 of Donkey Kong
        • Bienaimé, Pierre (January 13, 2012). Square Roots: Donkey Kong (NES). Nintendojo. Retrieved on 8 April 2012. “Donkey Kong sold some 67,000 arcade cabinets in two years, making two of its American distributors sudden millionaires thanks to paid commission. As a barometer of success, know that Pac-Man and Ms. Pac-Man are the only arcade games to have sold over 100,000 units in the United States.”
      • United States: 20,000 of Crazy Kong (licensed release of Donkey Kong)
    • United States: 30,000 of Donkey Kong Jr. and 5000 of Donkey Kong 3
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 "Bally Will Quit Making Pinball, Video Machines". Toledo Blade: p. 22. July 11, 1988. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=4FtQAAAAIBAJ&sjid=kw4EAAAAIBAJ&pg=6893,2823984. Retrieved 9 March 2012.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Mark J. P. Wolf (2001), The medium of the video game, University of Texas Press, p. 44, ISBN 0-292-79150-X, http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=lKZriBxbcwQC&pg=PA44, retrieved 2011-04-09
  10. 10.0 10.1 Steve L. Kent (2001), The ultimate history of video games: from Pong to Pokémon and beyond : the story behind the craze that touched our lives and changed the world, Prima, p. 132, ISBN 0-7615-3643-4, "Atari sold more than 70,000 Asteroids machines in the United States. The game did not do as well in Europe and Asia, however. Only about 30,000 units were sold overseas."
  11. Sellers, John (2001). Arcade fever: the fan's guide to the golden age of video games. Philadelphia: Running Press. p. 51. ISBN 0-7624-0937-1. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=8_3TjWRSLuAC. Retrieved 25 February 2012. "Williams sold around 60,000 units of Defender, easily the company's most successful game."
  12. Steven L. Kent (2001), The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story behind the Craze that Touched Our Lives and Changed the World, Prima, p. 147, http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=C2MH05ogU9oC, retrieved 2011-04-09, "Defender was Williams Electronics' biggest seller. More than 55,000 units were placed worldwide."
  13. 13.00 13.01 13.02 13.03 13.04 13.05 13.06 13.07 13.08 13.09 13.10 13.11 13.12 13.13 13.14 13.15 13.16 13.17 13.18 13.19 13.20 Atari Production Numbers Memo. Atari Games (4 January 2010). Retrieved on 18 March 2012.
  14. Bureau of National Affairs (1983), "United States Patents Quarterly, Volume 216", United States Patents Quarterly (Associated Industry Publications) 216, http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=EbVCAQAAIAAJ, retrieved 2011-04-09, "Since February 1980, Midway has sold in excess of 40,000 Galaxian games"
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 FY Ending March 2006: Full Year Results Presentation. Sega Sammy Holdings (16 May 2006). Retrieved on 17 May 2012.
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 FY 2007: Interim Results (April–September 2006) 11–13. Sega Sammy Holdings (November 10, 2006). Retrieved on 18 May 2012.
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 Fiscal Year Ending March 2007: 3rd Quarter Results (April–December 2006) 11–13. Sega Sammy Holdings (February 7, 2007). Retrieved on 19 May 2012.
  18. 18.0 18.1 Fiscal Year Ended March 2007: Full Year Results. Sega Sammy Holdings (May 14, 2007). Retrieved on 17 May 2012.
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 Fiscal Year 2008: Interim Results. Sega Sammy Holdings (November 12, 2007). Retrieved on 19 May 2012.
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 20.4 Segment Results: Amusement Machines. FY 2008: Full Year Results (Ending March 2008). Sega Sammy Holdings (May 15, 2008). Retrieved on 19 May 2012.
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 Appendix of Consolidated Financial Statements 9 Months Ended December 31, 2009. Sega Sammy Holdings (February 5, 2010). Retrieved on 13 April 2012.
  22. Steve L. Kent (2001), The ultimate history of video games: from Pong to Pokémon and beyond : the story behind the craze that touched our lives and changed the world, Prima, p. 352, ISBN 0-7615-3643-4, "In 1982, Universal Sales made arcade history with a game called Mr Do! Instead of selling dedicated Mr Do! machines, Universal sold the game as a kit. The kit came with a customized control panel, a computer board with Mr Do! read-only memory (ROM) chips, stickers that could be placed on the side of stand-up arcade machines for art, and a plastic marquee. It was the first game ever sold as a conversion only. According to former Universal Sales western regional sales manager Joe Morici, the company sold approximately 30,000 copies of the game in the United States alone."
  23. Mean Machines Sega, issue 22 (August 1994), page 92, published July 1994
  24. 24.00 24.01 24.02 24.03 24.04 24.05 24.06 24.07 24.08 24.09 24.10 Fujihara, Mary (1983-11-02). Inter Office Memo. Atari. Retrieved on 18 March 2012.
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 Horwitz, Jeremy (July 8, 2002). "Technology: Mortal Apathy?". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2002/07/08/technology/08MIDW.html. Retrieved 4 March 2012.
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 Beals, Gregory (December 11, 2000). "Kings of Cool". Newsweek. http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=NWEC&p_theme=nwec&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&p_topdoc=1&p_text_direct-0=0EC05F8B217664C7&p_field_direct-0=document_id&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D&s_trackval=GooglePM. Retrieved 19 April 2012. "Konami has sold 25,000 Beatmania machines in three years. In the arcade industry, selling 1000 units is considered a success."
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